Harare is the capital City of Zimbabwe. The city was founded in 1890 by a Pioneer Column, which was a military volunteer force organized by Cecil Rhodes. Harare was given the status of a fort at that time. It was then known by the name of 'Fort Salisbury'. Fort Salisbury was the capital of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963 (Zimbabwe and Malawi respectively). After sometime, the place was known only as 'Salisbury'. In 1897, Salisbury was declared as a municipality. It was in the year of 1935, that Harare was declared as a city. Zimbabwe gained independence in 1980 and during the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence (April 18th, 1982) the city’s name was changed to Harare. The City borrows its name from the first Shona inhabitants of the marshy flats near The Kopje (inselberg) on which it stands today who were called Ne-Harawa after the regional chief - Haarare (one who does not sleep).